and they were continuing stedfastly in the teaching of the apostles, and the fellowship (G2842), and the breaking of the bread, and the prayers. (Acts 2:42 YLT)
They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, (G2842) to the breaking of bread and the prayers. (Acts 2:42 NRSV)
In the NRSV (which I trust more for grammar and the meaning in English as opposed to literal consistent rendering in YLT) it has the church in acts continuing in the apostles’ teaching and fellowship. This is the same communal life that the apostles practiced. As it says in the NABRE says: “They devoted themselves to the teaching of the apostles and to the communal life, to the breaking of the bread and to the prayers.” (Acts 2:42 NABRE) The word for fellowship is transliterated as “koinonia” and is from the same root as “koinos” used for “common” in the phrases “kept all in common” in Acts 2:44 and 4:32.
κοινωνία,-ας+ N1F 1-0-0-0-2=3
Lv 5,21; 3 Mc 4,6; Wis 8,18
sign of fellowship, gift, contribution Lv 5,21
ἐν κοινωνίᾳ λόγων αὐτῆς in talking with her, in the sharing of words with her, in conversation with her
Wis 8,18; βίου κοινωνία partnership of marriage 3 Mc 4,6
Cf. HORSLEY 1983, 19; →NIDNTT; TWNT
2The soul which ever should sin, and by ignoring should ignore the commandments of the lord, and should lie concerning the neighbor in a matter of trust, or concerning fellowship, or concerning seizure, or he wronged [3in any way 1the 2neighbor], (Leviticus 6:2 ABP)
Gesenius says of this (I think he means Lev 6:2 or is referring to a Septuagint version of the Bible)
The root Gesenius says means “to put, to set. To place” https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7760&t=KJV
Gesenius says that this word with the genitive (meaning “of”) “יד” (hand) that it means “deposit.” If you used the root’s meaning it would literally be “putting of hand” Julius Furst’s lexicon renders this as “the pledging of the hand” https://books.google.com/books?id=BBGgdadBafgC&pg=PA537&lpg=PA537&dq=%D7%99%D6%B8%D7%93+lev+5:21&source=bl&ots=PocvUeWu6l&sig=ACfU3U063ZxRVMQX6Qkz_5Yl_OvuriDgIg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiA7JHSq5nnAhXFB50JHThJApUQ6AEwAHoECCkQAQ#v=onepage&q=%D7%99%D6%B8%D7%93%20lev%205%3A21&f=false
I see these sections of Gesenius’s definition for hand (H3027) as similar:
Rashi says of this:
money given in hand: that he placed money into his hand, to do business with it or [as] a loan. — [Torath Kohanim 5:373]
The idea of a loan (which were supposed to be given without interest and without expecting repayment) or a deposit (given in trust of completing the transaction, such as Judah did with Tamar) seems to fit with the Hebrew and Greek definitions here. One Hebrew word that Gesenius renders as “pledge” is H6162 https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H6162&t=KJV The usage in Hebrew Bible KJV follows:
And he said, I will send thee a kid from the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a pledge, H6162 till thou send it?
And he said, What pledge H6162 shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him. (Gen 38:18)
And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his pledge H6162 from the woman’s hand: but he found her not. (Gen 38:20)
The root of H6162 is H6148 which Gesenius says means to 1 “mix” 2 “to exchange articles” 3 “to become surety” 4 “to pledge, to give in pledge” The usage in the Hebrew Bible in the KJV follows:
I will be surety H6148 for him; of my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever: (Gen 43:9)
For thy servant became surety H6148 for the lad unto my father, saying, If I bring him not unto thee, then I shall bear the blame to my father for ever. (Gen 44:32)
Now therefore, I pray thee, give pledges H6148 to my lord the king of Assyria, and I will deliver thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them. (2Ki 18:23)
For they have taken of their daughters for themselves, and for their sons: so that the holy seed have mingled H6148 themselves with the people of those lands: yea, the hand of the princes and rulers hath been chief in this trespass. (Ezr 9:2)
Some also there were that said, We have mortgaged H6148 our lands, vineyards, and houses, that we might buy corn, because of the dearth. (Neh 5:3)
Lay down now, put me in a surety H6148 with thee; who is he that will strike hands with me? (Job 17:3)
But were mingled H6148 among the heathen, and learned their works. (Psa 106:35)
Be surety H6148 for thy servant for good: let not the proud oppress me. (Psa 119:122)
My son, if thou be surety H6148 for thy friend, if thou hast stricken thy hand with a stranger, (Pro 6:1)
He that is surety H6148 for a stranger shall smart for it: and he that hateth suretiship is sure. (Pro 11:15)
The heart knoweth his own bitterness; and a stranger doth not intermeddle H6148 with his joy. (Pro 14:10)
A man void of understanding striketh hands, and becometh H6148 surety in the presence of his friend. (Pro 17:18)
Take his garment that is surety H6148 for a stranger: and take a pledge of him for a strange woman. (Pro 20:16)
He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets: therefore meddle H6148 not with him that flattereth with his lips.
Be not thou one of them that strike hands, or of them that are sureties H6148 for debts. (Pro 22:26)
My son, fear thou the LORD and the king: and meddle H6148 not with them that are given to change: (Pro 24:21)
Take his garment that is surety H6148 for a stranger, and take a pledge of him for a strange woman. (Pro 27:13)
Now therefore give pledges, H6148 I pray thee, to my master the king of Assyria, and I will give thee two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.
Like a crane or a swallow, so did I chatter: I did mourn as a dove: mine eyes fail with looking upward: O LORD, I am oppressed; undertake H6148 for me.
And their nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor shall proceed from the midst of them; and I will cause him to draw near, and he shall approach unto me: for who is this that engaged H6148 his heart to approach unto me? saith the LORD.
The ancients of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers: all the ships of the sea with their mariners were in thee to occupy H6148 thy merchandise.
Thy riches, and thy fairs, thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy calkers, and the occupiers H6148 of thy merchandise, and all thy men of war, that are in thee, and in all thy company which is in the midst of thee, shall fall into the midst of the seas in the day of thy ruin.(Eze 27:27)
So that’s what I’ve found for the Hebrew meaning behind the Greek word “koinonia.” This is the definition from the BDAG. The thing I want to highlight here is it can mean “management of a household” which is interesting given that later is used in context of the coming together of the houses of Judah and Ephraim:
οἰκονομία, ας, ἡ (οἰκονομέω; X., Pla.+; ins., pap; Is 22:19, 21; TestJob, ParJer, Philo, Joseph.)Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., pp. 697–698). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
① responsibility of management, management of a household, direction, office (X., Oec. 1, 1; Herodian 6, 1, 1; Jos., Ant. 2, 89; PTebt 27, 21 [114 B.C.]; PLond III, 904, 25 p. 125 [104 A.D.]; Orig., C. Cels. 8, 57, 22).
ⓐ lit., of the work of an οἰκονόμος ‘estate manager’ Lk 16:2–4 (this passage shows that it is not always poss. to draw a sharp distinction betw. the office itself and the activities associated w. it).—WPöhlmann, Der verlorene Sohn u. das Haus ’93.
ⓑ Paul applies the idea of administration to the office of an apostle οἰκονομίαν πεπίστευμαι I have been entrusted with a commission/task 1 Cor 9:17 (cp. Theoph. Ant. 1, 11 [p. 82, 8]); ἀνθρωπίνων οἰκονομίαν μυστηρίων πεπίστευνται they have been entrusted with the administration of merely human mysteries Dg 7:1. Of a supervisor (bishop): ὃν πέμπει ὁ οἰκοδεσπότης εἰς ἰδίαν οἰκ. (οἰκ. ἰδίου οἴκου) the one whom the master of the house sent to administer his own household IEph 6:1. This is prob. also the place for κατὰ τὴν οἰκ. τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι εἰς ὑμᾶς according to the divine office which has been granted to me for you Col 1:25, as well as ἠκούσατε τὴν οἰκονομίαν τ. χάριτος τ. θεοῦ τῆς δοθείσης μοι εἰς ὑμᾶς you have heard of the administration of God’s grace that was granted to me for you Eph 3:2 (on the other hand, this latter vs. may be parallel to the usage in vs. 9; s. 2b below).
② state of being arranged, arrangement, order, plan (X., Cyr. 5, 3, 25; Polyb. 4, 67, 9; 10, 16, 2; Diod S 1, 81, 3)
ⓐ ἡ τῆς σαρκὸς οἰκονομία of the arrangement or structure of the parts of the body beneath the skin; they are laid bare by scourging MPol 2:2.—(Iren. 5, 3, 2 [Harv. II, 326, 3]).
ⓑ of God’s unique plan private plan, plan of salvation, i.e. arrangements for redemption of humans (in the pap of arrangements and directions of authorities: UPZ 162 IX, 2 [117 B.C.]; CPR 11, 26, and in PGM [e.g. 4, 293] of the measures by which one wishes to attain some goal by extrahuman help.—Just., D. 31, 1 τοῦ πάθους … οἰκ.; Hippol., Did.) ἡ οἰκ. τοῦ μυστηρίου the plan of the mystery Eph 3:9 (v.l. κοινωνία; on the thought cp. vs. 2 and s. JReumann, NovT 3, ’59, 282–92.—Just., D. 134, 2 οἰκονομίαι … μυστηρίων). Also in the linguistically difficult passage 1:10 οἰκ. certainly refers to the plan of salvation which God is bringing to reality through Christ, in the fullness of the times. κατʼ οἰκονομίαν θεοῦ according to God’s plan of redemption IEph 18:2 (cp. Ath. 21, 4 κατὰ θείαν οἰκ.—Pl.: Iren. 1, 10, 1 [Harv. I 90, 8]) προσδηλώσω ὑμῖν ἧς ἠρξάμην οἰκονομίας εἰς τὸν καινὸν ἄνθρωπον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν I will explain to you further the divine plan which I began (to discuss), with reference to the new human being Jesus Christ IEph 20:1. AcPl Ha 3, 23 of God’s marvelous plan = way of doing things; 6, 26 ο̣ἰ̣κο̣ν̣[ομίαν πληρῶσω κτλ.] (so that I might carry out God’s) plan for me; pl. 5, 27 [ὡς καὶ ἐκεῖ τὰς τοῦ κυρίου οἰκο]νομίας πληρῶσε (=πληρῶσαι) [Paul has gone off to carry out God’s] purpose [also there] (in Macedonia) (apparently a ref. to the various missionary assignments given by God to Paul; for the formulation cp. τὴν οἰκ. τελέσας Orig., C. Cels. 2, 65, 4).
ⓒ also of God’s arrangements in nature pl. αἱ οἰκ. θεοῦ Dg 4:5 (cp. Tat. 12, 2; 18, 2 ὕλης οἰκ.; Did., Gen. 92, 6 πάντα ὑπὸ τὴν αὐτοῦ οἰκ. ἐστίν.—Of the order in creation Theoph. Ant. 2, 12 [p. 130, 2]).
③ program of instruction, training (in the way of salvation); this mng. (found also Clem. Alex., Paed. 1, 8, 69, 3; 70, 1 p. 130 St.) seems to fit best in 1 Ti 1:4, where it is said of the erroneous teachings of certain persons ἐκζητήσεις παρέχουσιν μᾶλλον ἢ οἰκονομίαν θεοῦ τὴν ἐν πίστει they promote useless speculations rather than divine training that is in faith (οἰκοδομήν and οἰκοδομίαν [q.v.] as vv.ll. are simply ‘corrections’ to alleviate the difficulty). If οἰκ. is to be taken in the sense of 1b above, the thought of the verse would be somewhat as follows: ‘endless speculative inquiry merely brings about contention instead of the realization of God’s purpose which has to do with faith.’—OLillger, Das patristische Wort, diss. Erlangen ’55; JReumann, The Use of ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΑ and Related Terms etc., diss. U. of Pennsylvania ’57.—DELG s.v. νέμω. M-M. EDNT. TW. Spicq. Sv.
Of the other places Koinonia is used in the new testament, this one, we have already discussed:
42 They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.43 Awe came upon everyone, because many wonders and signs were being done by the apostles. 44 All who believed were together and had all things in common; 45 they would sell their possessions and goods and distribute the proceeds to all, as any had need.(Acts 2:42-45 NRSV)
Here it is used off a charitable gift to another church:
26 for Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to share their resources with the poor among the saints at Jerusalem. 27 They were pleased to do this, and indeed they owe it to them; for if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material things. 28 So, when I have completed this, and have delivered to them what has been collected, I will set out by way of you to Spain; 29 and I know that when I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ. (Romans 15:26-29 NRSV)
Here similar language is used to what the church in Acts is described as having (see bold italics)
9 God is faithful; by him you were called into the fellowship of his Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. 10 Now I appeal to you, brothers and sisters, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you be in agreement and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be united in the same mind and the same purpose. 11 For it has been reported to me by Chloe’s people that there are quarrels among you, my brothers and sisters. 12 What I mean is that each of you says, “I belong to Paul,” or “I belong to Apollos,” or “I belong to Cephas,” or “I belong to Christ.” 13 Has Christ been divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul? 14 I thank God that I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius, 15 so that no one can say that you were baptized in my name. 16 (I did baptize also the household of Stephanas; beyond that, I do not know whether I baptized anyone else.) 17 For Christ did not send me to baptize but to proclaim the gospel, and not with eloquent wisdom, so that the cross of Christ might not be emptied of its power. (1 Cor 1:9-17)
Here koinonia is used to describe the unity of the body of messiah:
12 So if you think you are standing, watch out that you do not fall. 13 No testing has overtaken you that is not common to everyone. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tested beyond your strength, but with the testing he will also provide the way out so that you may be able to endure it. 14 Therefore, my dear friends, flee from the worship of idols. 15 I speak as to sensible people; judge for yourselves what I say. 16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ? 17 Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all partake of the one bread. 18 Consider the people of Israel; are not those who eat the sacrifices partners in the altar? 19 What do I imply then? That food sacrificed to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything? 20 No, I imply that what pagans sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God. I do not want you to be partners with demons. 21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. You cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons. 22 Or are we provoking the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he? 23 “All things are lawful,” but not all things are beneficial. “All things are lawful,” but not all things build up. 24 Do not seek your own advantage, but that of the other.
(1 Cor 10:12-16)
12 There is no restriction in our affections, but only in yours. 13 In return—I speak as to children—open wide your hearts also. 14 Do not be mismatched with unbelievers. For what partnership is there between righteousness and lawlessness? Or what fellowship is there between light and darkness? 15 What agreement does Christ have with Beliar? Or what does a believer share with an unbeliever? 16 What agreement has the temple of God with idols? For we are the temple of the living God; as God said,
“I will live in them and walk among them,
and I will be their God,
and they shall be my people.
17 Therefore come out from them,
and be separate from them, says the Lord,
and touch nothing unclean;
then I will welcome you,
18 and I will be your father,
and you shall be my sons and daughters,
says the Lord Almighty.”
(2 Corinthians 6:12-18)
Here it is used in context with a charitable gift to another church:
3 For, as I can testify, they voluntarily gave according to their means, and even beyond their means, 4 begging us earnestly for the privilege of sharing in this ministry to the saints— 5 and this, not merely as we expected; they gave themselves first to the Lord and, by the will of God, to us, 6 so that we might urge Titus that, as he had already made a beginning, so he should also complete this generous undertaking among you. 7 Now as you excel in everything—in faith, in speech, in knowledge, in utmost eagerness, and in our love for you—so we want you to excel also in this generous undertaking. 8 I do not say this as a command, but I am testing the genuineness of your love against the earnestness of others. 9 For you know the generous act of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, so that by his poverty you might become rich. 10 And in this matter I am giving my advice: it is appropriate for you who began last year not only to do something but even to desire to do something— 11 now finish doing it, so that your eagerness may be matched by completing it according to your means. 12 For if the eagerness is there, the gift is acceptable according to what one has—not according to what one does not have. 13 I do not mean that there should be relief for others and pressure on you, but it is a question of a fair balance between 14 your present abundance and their need, so that their abundance may be for your need, in order that there may be a fair balance. 15 As it is written,
“The one who had much did not have too much,
and the one who had little did not have too little.”
16 But thanks be to God who put in the heart of Titus the same eagerness for you that I myself have. 17 For he not only accepted our appeal, but since he is more eager than ever, he is going to you of his own accord. 18 With him we are sending the brother who is famous among all the churches for his proclaiming the good news; 19 and not only that, but he has also been appointed by the churches to travel with us while we are administering this generous undertaking for the glory of the Lord himself and to show our goodwill. (2 Corinthians 8:4)
And here again:
5 So I thought it necessary to urge the brothers to go on ahead to you, and arrange in advance for this bountiful gift that you have promised, so that it may be ready as a voluntary gift and not as an extortion. 6 The point is this: the one who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and the one who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully. 7 Each of you must give as you have made up your mind, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver. 8 And God is able to provide you with every blessing in abundance, so that by always having enough of everything, you may share abundantly in every good work. 9 As it is written,
“He scatters abroad, he gives to the poor;
his righteousness endures forever.”
10 He who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food will supply and multiply your seed for sowing and increase the harvest of your righteousness. 11 You will be enriched in every way for your great generosity, which will produce thanksgiving to God through us; 12 for the rendering of this ministry not only supplies the needs of the saints but also overflows with many thanksgivings to God. 13 Through the testing of this ministry you glorify God by your obedience to the confession of the gospel of Christ and by the generosity of your sharing with them and with all others, 14 while they long for you and pray for you because of the surpassing grace of God that he has given you. 15 Thanks be to God for his indescribable gift! (2 Corinthians 9:13)
Here it is used of the commonly held or shared holy spirit:
11 Finally, brothers and sisters, farewell. Put things in order, listen to my appeal, agree with one another, live in peace; and the God of love and peace will be with you. 12 Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the saints greet you. 13 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with all of you. ( 2 Corinthians 13:14)
Here it is used of at least a general partnership, if not a communal one of sharing with the poor:
7 On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel for the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been entrusted with the gospel for the circumcised 8 (for he who worked through Peter making him an apostle to the circumcised also worked through me in sending me to the Gentiles), 9 and when James and Cephas and John, who were acknowledged pillars, recognized the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me the right hand of fellowship, agreeing that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. 10 They asked only one thing, that we remember the poor, which was actually what I was eager to do.
Here it is used of the comming together of the two houses of Israel, Judah and Ephraim:
1 So then, remember that at one time you Gentiles by birth, called “the uncircumcision” by those who are called “the circumcision”—a physical circumcision made in the flesh by human hands— 12 remember that you were at that time without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. 14 For he is our peace; in his flesh he has made both groups into one and has broken down the dividing wall, that is, the hostility between us. 15 He has abolished the law with its commandments and ordinances, that he might create in himself one new humanity in place of the two, thus making peace, 16 and might reconcile both groups to God in one body through the cross, thus putting to death that hostility through it. 17 So he came and proclaimed peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near; 18 for through him both of us have access in one Spirit to the Father. 19 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are citizens with the saints and also members of the household of God, 20 built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the cornerstone. 21 In him the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord; 22 in whom you also are built together spiritually into a dwelling place for God. (Ephesians 2)
1This is the reason that I Paul am a prisoner for Christ Jesus for the sake of you Gentiles— 2 for surely you have already heard of the commission of God’s grace that was given me for you, 3 and how the mystery was made known to me by revelation, as I wrote above in a few words, 4 a reading of which will enable you to perceive my understanding of the mystery of Christ. 5 In former generations this mystery was not made known to humankind, as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit: 6 that is, the Gentiles have become fellow heirs, members of the same body, and sharers in the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel. 7 Of this gospel I have become a servant according to the gift of God’s grace that was given me by the working of his power. 8 Although I am the very least of all the saints, this grace was given to me to bring to the Gentiles the news of the boundless riches of Christ, 9 and to make everyone see what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things; 9 and to make everyone see what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things; 10 so that through the church the wisdom of God in its rich variety might now be made known to the rulers and authorities in the heavenly places. 11 This was in accordance with the eternal purpose that he has carried out in Christ Jesus our Lord, 12 in whom we have access to God in boldness and confidence through faith in him. 13 I pray therefore that you may not lose heart over my sufferings for you; they are your glory. 14 For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, 15 from whom every family in heaven and on earth takes its name. 16 I pray that, according to the riches of his glory, he may grant that you may be strengthened in your inner being with power through his Spirit, 17 and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith, as you are being rooted and grounded in love. (Ephesians 2:1-3:17)
Here it is used of the sharing in the gospel and compared to their sharing in God’s grace, Paul’s imprisonment, and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel.
3 I thank my God every time I remember you, 4 constantly praying with joy in every one of my prayers for all of you, 5 because of your sharing in the gospel from the first day until now. 6 I am confident of this, that the one who began a good work among you will bring it to completion by the day of Jesus Christ. 7 It is right for me to think this way about all of you, because you hold me in your heart, for all of you share in God’s grace with me, both in my imprisonment and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel. 8 For God is my witness, how I long for all of you with the compassion of Christ Jesus. (Philippians 1:3-8)
Here again it is used with similar language to the sharing in the church in Acts:
1 If then there is any encouragement in Christ, any consolation from love, any sharing in the Spirit, any compassion and sympathy, 2 make my joy complete: be of the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind. 3 Do nothing from selfish ambition or conceit, but in humility regard others as better than yourselves. 4 Let each of you look not to your own interests, but to the interests of others. 5 Let the same mind be in you that was in Christ Jesus,
6 who, though he was in the form of God,
did not regard equality with God
as something to be exploited,
7 but emptied himself,
taking the form of a slave,
being born in human likeness.
And being found in human form,
8 he humbled himself
and became obedient to the point of death—
even death on a cross.
9 Therefore God also highly exalted him
and gave him the name
that is above every name,
10 so that at the name of Jesus
every knee should bend,
in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
11 and every tongue should confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord,
to the glory of God the Father.
Here it is used of sharing the sufferings of Christ:
8 For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ 9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith. 10 I want to know Christ and the power of his resurrection and the sharing of his sufferings by becoming like him in his death, 11 if somehow I may attain the resurrection from the dead. (Philippians 3:8-11)
Again the sharing of their beliefs:
4 When I remember you in my prayers, I always thank my God 5 because I hear of your love for all the saints and your faith toward the Lord Jesus. 6 I pray that the sharing of your faith may become effective when you perceive all the good that we may do for Christ. 7 I have indeed received much joy and encouragement from your love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed through you, my brother. (Philemon 1:4-7)
Here it seems explicitly to mean possession sharing according to the NRSV:
15 Through him, then, let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that confess his name. 16 Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God. (Hebrews 13:15-16)
Although there are other translations:
Hebrews 13:16 — “But to do good and to communicate forget not” – Word Study on “to communicate” – Strong says the Greek word “communicate” ( κοινωνία) (G 2842) means, “partnership, participation.” BDAG says it means, “generosity, fellow-feeling, altruism.” Within the context of Hebrews 13:16, it carries the idea of generous sharing with one another.
Here again of some form of fellowship that is also used for the fellowship we have with Christ:
3 we declare to you what we have seen and heard so that you also may have fellowship with us; and truly our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. 4 We are writing these things so that our joy may be complete. 5 This is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you, that God is light and in him there is no darkness at all. 6 If we say that we have fellowship with him while we are walking in darkness, we lie and do not do what is true; 7 but if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin. 8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 9 If we confess our sins, he who is faithful and just will forgive us our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. (1 John 1:3-10)
Here G2843 (koinonikoi) is used in Timothy 6:18 and translated rather blandly as generous:
17 As for those who in the present age are rich, command them not to be haughty, or to set their hopes on the uncertainty of riches, but rather on God who richly provides us with everything for our enjoyment. 18 They are to do good, to be rich in good works, generous, and ready to share, 19 thus storing up for themselves the treasure of a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of the life that really is life. (1 Timothy 17-19)
So some of these are uncertain, but where the meaning is certain it seems to reflect a communal or charitable attitude and is used with the same type of language that described the church in Acts. David Bentley Hart concludes from his study of the words related to koinon:
The early church’s radicalism, if that is the right word, was impressed upon me repeatedly over the past few years, as I worked on my own translation of the New Testament for Yale University Press. . . regarding various constructions concerning words dealing with that which is “koinon,” or “common,” and most especially the texts’ distinctive emphasis on “koinonia.” This is a word usually rendered blandly as “fellowship” or “sharing” or (slightly better) “communion.” But is that all it implies?nytimes.com/2017/11/04/opinion/sunday/christianity-communism.html
After all, the New Testament’s condemnations of personal wealth are fairly unremitting and remarkably stark: Matthew 6:19-20, for instance (“Do not store up treasures for yourself on the earth”), or Luke 6:24-25 (“But alas for you who are rich, for you have your comfort”) or James 5:1-6 (“Come now, you who are rich, weep, howling out at the miseries that are coming for you”). While there are always clergy members and theologians swift to assure us that the New Testament condemns not wealth but its abuse, not a single verse (unless subjected to absurdly forced readings) confirms the claim.
I came to the conclusion that koinonia often refers to a precise set of practices within the early Christian communities, a special social arrangement — the very one described in Acts — that was integral to the new life in Christ. When, for instance, the Letter to the Hebrews instructs believers not to neglect koinonia, or the First Letter to Timothy exhorts them to become koinonikoi, this is no mere recommendation of personal generosity, but an invocation of a very specific form of communal life.
As best we can tell, local churches in the Roman world of the apostolic age were essentially small communes, self-sustaining but also able to share resources with one another when need dictated. This delicate web of communes constituted a kind of counter-empire within the empire, one founded upon charity rather than force — or, better, a kingdom not of this world but present within the world nonetheless, encompassing a radically different understanding of society and property.